There is continuing debate about who was responsible for the rebellion and the degree of popular support it enjoyed.  Other rebels were also sentenced to hang and ninety-two men were sent to Van Diemen's Land.  Government officials met at the Lieutenant Governor's residence on December 2 to discuss how to stop rumours of a rebellion. , The next day Mackenzie convinced John Rolph that a rebellion could be successful and happen without anyone being killed. Most banks – including the Bank of Upper Canada – suspended payments by July 1837 and successfully obtained government support while ordinary farmers and the poor did not. Much of the investment capital available to Upper Canadians came from banks in Montreal, and much of the wealth of the Lower Canadian merchant elite was derived from activities in Upper Canada or even farther west.  The victorious Tory supporters burned homes and farms of known rebels and suspected supporters. They controlled the system of patronage throughout  The rebels believed there were several battalions of troops firing upon them and several ran away. The Executive Council resigned, provoking widespread discontent and an election in 1834. The upper Canada Rebellion also ended quite unsuccessful. Favorite Answer. , Paul Romney explains this failure of historical imagination as the outcome of an explicit strategy adopted by reformers in the face of charges of disloyalty to Britain in the wake of the Rebellions of 1837. The rebellion and the raids also played into the hands of the ultra-Tory faction in Upper Canada. These grievances breathed life into the nascent Political unrest developed in both Upper and Lower Canada soon after the War of 1812. Mackenzie also attacked other travellers and robbed them or questioned them about the revolt. Parliament also sent Lord Durham to become Governor-in-Chief of the British North American colonies, so that Arthur reported to Durham. the Durham Report. Prescott in November and at Windsor in early December. However, its leaders, including William Lyon Mackenzie, were equally serious in their demands. Representative Government. , Among the more than 150 lawsuits they launched that year, the Bank of Upper Canada, sued Sheldon, Dutcher & Co., a foundry and Toronto's largest employer with over 80 employees in late 1836, bankrupting the company. The British government was concerned about the rebellion, especially in light of the strong popular support for the rebels in the United States and the Lower Canada Rebellion. The Upper Canadian rebels were in favor for the American Revolution and felt a similar revolution was needed in Upper Canada. The Early American Republic and the 1837–38 Canadian Rebellions. The ensuing conflicts along the border led to many more executions, deaths and deportations than the original There are many different factors that contributed to the 1873 rebellions of upper and lower Canada. However, the remaining rebels thought their comrades [by whom?]  A group of twenty-six men led by Samuel Jarvis met the rebels on their march and fired upon them before running away. This caused a recession in Upper Canada. Terms in this set (11) Family Compact.  He appealed to the people's desire to maintain part of the British Empire and a paternalistic attitude of the Crown providing goods for the people. Cross and R.L.  The rebel leaders met that night to discuss who would become the rebellion's leader after the death of Anderson and Lount's refusal to lead on his own.  Frederick Armstrong believed the rebellion was a reaction to patronage afforded to members of the Family Compact after winning the 1836 election. In pursuit of this democratic goal, the Chartists eventually staged a similar armed rebellion, the Newport Rising, in Wales in 1839. to withdraw on 14 January, after Canadian volunteers burned the rebel ship, Caroline. Any answers will help, thnx The Lower Canada Rebellion (French: La rébellion du Bas-Canada), commonly referred to as the Patriots' War (French: la Guerre des patriotes) by Quebecers, is the name given to the armed conflict between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province. Thus, responsible government became a "pragmatic" policy of alleviating local abuses, rather than a revolutionary anti-colonial moment. As a result, the rebels would either have a death penalty or be transported to Bermuda/ Australia for 7 years. Though poorly organized and easily crushed, the raids kept the border in a constant state of turmoil. After the War of 1812 the colonial government prevented Americans from swearing allegiance, thereby making them ineligible to obtain land grants. Buckner, Phillip A. . The Upper Canada Rebellion was largely defeated shortly after it began, although resistance lingered until 1838. Mackenzie, Duncombe and other rebel leaders fled with about 200 followers to After the rebellions, Both Papineau and McKenzie fled to the United States, leaving their follower rebels to face their punishments. , The Upper Canada Central Political Union was organized in 1832–33 by Dr Thomas David Morrison and collected 19,930 signatures on a petition protesting William Lyon Mackenzie's expulsion from the House of Assembly. After the first rebellion in 1837, normal civil rights were suspended by the application of martial law and Lord Durham was named Governor of all British North America. Answer Save. The Upper Canadian Rebellion was an unsuccessful uprising in Upper Canada against the Family Compact. , In November 1837, in the lead-up to the Political Union's Constitutional Convention, Mackenzie published a satire in the Constitution, a round table discussion by John Locke, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, Oliver Goldsmith and William Pitt and others. He persuaded his more radical followers to draft a republican constitution for Upper Canada modelled on that of the United States. what were their reasons? Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. In Lower Canada it was mostly a call for independence in order to preserve the French way of life and to pursue Canadien financial interests. He left Hamilton, Ontario on December 12 and arrived in Brantford on December 13.  The Canadian Alliance Society was reborn as the Constitutional Reform Society in 1836, and led by the more moderate reformer, Dr William W. Baldwin. Mackenzie was a Scottish-born politician and newspaper publisher. The Lower Canadian Rebellion of 1837 stems from … Asked by Wiki User. , Anthony Van Egmond arrived at the tavern on December 7 and encouraged the rebel leaders to disperse, as he felt the rebellion would not be a success. During 1838, the rebels continued to send expeditions across the border. Protestant groups. The Upper Canada Rebellion was against the government of British colony of Upper Canada in December 1837. This is why some historians argue that the Battle of Ridgeway “made” Canada. -instead of accepting the 92 resolutions, the British leaders, such as Robert Baldwin, to reshape the reform movement along John Charles Dent, writing in 1885, said the rebellion was a reaction from the public of the government mismanagement of the minority ruling elite. In Lower Canada many French habitants were suffering from famine and the accumulation of huge debts due to poor harvests.  Mackenzie took both men prisoner but did not search them for weapons as they gave their word that they did not have any. Bond Head was recalled in late 1837 and replaced with Sir George Arthur who arrived in Toronto in March 1838. Top Answer. Governor, ... which had been concentrated in Lower Canada to deal with the crisis. , Rolph tried to warn Mackenzie about the warrant for his arrest but could not find him so delivered the message to Lount instead. This led to the introduction of what became known as responsible government. Tundra Rob. He openly assisted the conservatives in winning the election of 1836. for service during the rebellions. In November 1837, James Fitzgibbon was concerned about soldiers leaving Upper Canada going to quell the Lower Canada Rebellion and urged Bond Head to keep some troops for protection, which was refused. He was a fierce critic of the Family Compact and the government's refusal to give political rights to American settlers. Mackenzie disagreed and wanted to attack the government troops. Rebellions of 1837, also known as Rebellions of 1837–38, rebellions mounted in 1837–38 in each colony of Upper and Lower Canada against the British Crown and the political status quo. However, the government did maintain a Colored Corps unit at Niagara until 1850. They wanted democratic reform and an end to the rule of a privileged oligarchy. This was worsened in Upper Canada by bad wheat harvests in 1836 and farmers were unable to pay their debts. Hamilton, Sandwich (Windsor) and along the border in the Niagara region.). Five hundred men gathered under the leadership of Charles Duncombe. , On December 4, Mackenzie and other rebels were patrolling the area and encountered Alderman John Powell (Canadian politician) and Archibald Macdonald (Canadian politician). In their fear and confusion, they turned and ran. ...Dannicah S. Blk 2.3 Rebellion of 1837 After learning about the rebellion of 1837 and constantly taking notes, I realized the rebellion was not successful in overturning the government but it did unite both Upper and Lower Canada together. Lount and Mackenzie asked that this offer be presented in a written document and a convention be organised to discuss the province's policies. Murray, and Barry Wright (2 vol 1996, 2002), This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 01:59.  After the Battle of Saint-Denis Fitzgibbon prepared a list of men that he could contact personally if a rebellion began in Toronto. Bond Head then refused to pass any legislation from that government session including major public works projects. See Answer. The Upper Canada Rebellion was, along with the Patriotes Rebellion in Lower Canada, a rebellion against the colonial government in 1837 and 1838.Collectively they are also known as the Rebellion of 1837, while the Patriotes Rebellion is also called the Lower Canada Rebellion.. The rebellion of lower Canada ended when upper & lower cananda became one due to the government wanting one country not two halves. The impact of the Upper Canadian insurgency is equally debatable.  Morrison was arrested and charged with treason while Rolph sent a letter encouraging Mackenzie to send the rebels home then fled to the United States. Sir Francis Bond Head and the rash behaviour of William Lyon Mackenzie. Mackenzie printed the declaration in his newspaper and toured communities north of Toronto to encourage citizens to make similar declarations. The Rebellions of 1837 92 resolutions -it was a list that consisted of all the grievances in Lower Canada -The Patriotes took it directly to London for approval William Lyon Mackenzie What Caused the rebellion in Upper Canada? The rebels’ loss of the Anne ended their Without it, however, the Upper Canadian revolt probably would not The British Reform movement, organized as "Political Unions," had achieved the Great Reform Bill of 1832 which broadened the electoral franchiseand helped eliminate political corruption. The rebellion itself failed, but its very failure helped pave the way for moderate and careful political change in British North America. The Compact dominated the running of the government. In upper Canada it was due to the control … Amid these tensions, there was also economic depression in the 1830s. In, M.S. However, he succeeded in helping to cause the rebellion. and The rebellions of 1837–38. This included the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada and the eventual introduction of responsible government. the colony and used political office and influence to further their own business interests. On 5 December, a motley assortment of 500 to 700 rebels bearing only hunting rifles, staves and pitchforks, marched south on Yonge Street. Wiki User Answered . There was also popular opposition to land-granting practices. Join the two colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada into one colony called the Province of Canada. , At noon on December 5, Mackenzie gathered the rebels and marched them towards Toronto. A large number of the settlers were of American origin. His report eventually led to greater autonomy in the Canadian colonies and the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada in 1840. Britain In fact, they brought Britain and the US to the verge of war. Only two of the original rebels, Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews, were executed by the Lount and the riflemen marched to find the rebels who fled and found Mackenzie trying to convince the rebels to continue their path towards Toronto. , The government forces also split into two companies when the rebels fired upon them. , A loyalist named Robert Moodie saw the large gathering at Montgomery's Tavern and rode towards Toronto to warn the officials. The united Province of Canada came into being in 1841. The large number of migrants led American legislators to speculate that bringing Upper Canada into the American fold would be a "mere matter of marching".  Their administrative roles were intimately tied to their business activities. It undermined the influence of the extremists in Upper Canada. Buckner, P., Rebellion in Upper Canada (2019). They focused on the campaign for responsible government and were thus prepared to unite the two Canadas. Between 5 and 8 December 1837, approximately 1,000 men gathered at Montgomery's Tavern in Toronto. For example, William Allan "was an executive councillor, a legislative councillor, President of the Toronto and Lake Huron Railroad, Governor of the British American Fire and Life Assurance Company and President of the Board of Trade.  Upon hearing more details about the rebellion in Toronto, Duncombe convened a series of public meetings to spread news of the supposed atrocities committed by Bond Head against all suspected reformers to help increase anti-government support. Chateau Clique. The Rebellion was, rather, the unintended consequence of a sophisticated political movement that copied the organizational forms of the British Reform movement. He proclaimed a republic of Upper Canada. After the War of 1812, there was growing discontent in Upper Canada with the elite clique of politicians and officials known as the Family Compact. However, many reformers, including Bidwell, fled to the US. This is particularly true for the rebellion in Upper Canada. The Act of Union was Two years later, Upper and Lower Canada were unified. Its members won control of the elected Legislative Assembly in 1828 and again in 1834. Colonel Allan MacNab, who had just finished leading Upper Canadian militiamen during the Battle of Montgomery's Tavern, was sent to engage Duncombe's uprising. They were easily dispersed by government volunteers under the command of Sir Allan Napier MacNab. Thanks for contributing to The Canadian Encyclopedia. Some of the causes were similar, rooted in the governing structure imposed by the 1791 constitution, while other causes developed from each colony’s particular character. The union was reorganized as the Canadian Alliance Society in 1835 and adopted much of the platform of the Owenite National Union of the Working Classes in London, England, that were to be integrated into the Chartist movement in England. The new Tory-dominated Legislature passed laws that exacerbated tensions including continuing the Legislative session after the death of the King, prohibiting members of the Legislature from serving as Executive Councillors, making it easier to sue indebted farmers, protecting the Bank of Upper Canada from bankruptcy, and giving Legislative Councillors charters for their own banks. In the end, Black colonists and other loyalists got their wish: the Upper Canada Rebellion collapsed completely and the possibility of annexation vanished. The Upper Canada Rebellion was an insurrection against the oligarchic government of the British colony of Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) in December 1837. The records in the 1837 Rebellion Losses of Upper Canada are organized in this document by District. Some historians sympathize with the rebels and believe they represented the voice of the majority, or at least of the colonial working classes. other These policies favoured r… This contributed to economic hardship and increased unemployment throughout the province. With the help of American volunteers, the various rebel groups launched raids against Upper Canada.  At noon Bond Head ordered that the troops, consisting of 1200 men and two cannons, march towards the rebels. The government of Upper Canada was run by wealthy landowners known as the Family Compact.  Farmers organised target practice sessions and forges in the Home District and Simcoe County created weapons for the rebellion. The linkage of the "fight for responsible government" with disloyalty was solidified by the Rebellion of 1837, as reformers took up arms to finally break the "baneful domination" of the mother country. The impact did not happen immediately as intended though.  Mackenzie's first plan for rebellion involved calling on Sheldon & Dutcher's men to storm the city hall, where the militia's guns were stored. With the British minority in Lower Canada Consequences of Rebellion in Lower Canada: Causes of the rebellion in Lower Canada. The more extreme elements in the Reform movement then began to mobilize under the leadership of William Lyon Mackenzie. As part of this satire, he published a draft republican constitution for the State of Upper Canada that closely resembled the objectives in the constitution of the Canadian Alliance Society in 1834. Although Lount wanted to launch an attack that night, other rebels leaders rejected that plan so that the troops could rest after their march and they could get information from Rolph about the status of rebels who lived in Toronto. "Rebellion in Upper Canada". It was decided that Mackenzie would become the leader. The lower Canadian rebels would have their crops and fields burned.  The government continued their march and at Montgomery's Tavern a cannon shot into the dining room window. However, the mainstream historical view is that the uprising had limited support and was largely an accident.  His advice was rejected, so he proposed entrenching and defending their position at the tavern. government. just upriver from the falls. The causes of the rebellion in Upper Canada are unique and quite different from Lower Canada. Reformist leaders such as Marshall Spring Bidwell, who had been Speaker of the Assembly, The rebels refused to march until daylight. (See: The Early American Republic and the 1837–38 Canadian Rebellions.) , News of the intended rebellion had reached London and the surrounding townships by December 7. Give the province of Canada responsible Government.  Reformers such as Thomas David Morrison opposed this plan and the meeting ended without consensus on what to do next. (Hundreds of Black Canadians volunteered  Dent wrote that the rebellion caused England to notice the concerns of Canadian reformers and reconsider their colonial rule of the province. On 8 January 1838, the Upper Canadian militia and a 50-man Coloured Corps under the command of Black community leader Josiah Henson captured the sailboat Anne. Oligarchy. Mackenzie went to the United States mainland where he was arrested for violating the Neutrality Act.. The rebellions in both Upper and Lower Canada led directly to the appointment of Lord Durham and Mackenzie printed the declaration in his newspaper and toured communities north of Toronto to encourage citizens to make similar declarations. The Compact dominated the running of the government. In the 1860s, some of the former rebels were compensated by the Canadian government for their lost property in the rebellion aftermath. Mackenzie saw the bank as a prop of the Government and demanded farmers withdraw the money they had deposited in the bank and public confidence in the bank decreased. The rebels dispersed in a panic after the first round of firing thinking the rebel's front row had been killed when they were simply dropping to the ground to allow those behind them to fire. Political Corruption was the main cause of both Rebellions, in lower Canada it was due to the Colonial administration favouring English colonists and ignoring the needs of the French colonists. Relations between the appointed Legislative Council and the elected Legislative Assembly became increasingly strained in the years after the war, over issues of immigration, taxation, banking and land speculation. Sir Francis Bond Head, the new lieutenant-governor, was sent to Upper Canada to appease the reformers in the Assembly. This was able to take away any differences of the two cultures, English and French. In March 1837 the Tories passed a law making it cheaper to sue farmers by allowing city merchants to sue in the middle of harvest. Fitzgibbon was appointed commander of the government's forces. In total, three men — two rebels and one loyalist — lost their lives. Historians of past generations insisted that without the rebellions, change would have come more slowly, if at all. more moderate lines.  Meanwhile, Bond Head proposed a negotiating session with rebel leaders to Marshall Spring Bidwell, who declined. Likewise everything coming into Upper Canada from Britain — including a great many immigrants — did so by sailing up the St. Lawrence first. , Unlike previous Lt. Governors, Bond Head actively supported Tory candidates and utilized Orange Order violence in order to ensure their election. There was also popular opposition to land-granting practices.  The Reformers won a majority in the elections held in 1834 for the Legislative Assembly of the 12th Parliament of Upper Canada but the Family Compact held the majority in the Legislative Council.  He refused proposals to bring responsible government to Upper Canada, responding in a sarcastic tone that belittled reformers. I need this info for a school history project, i need to know the post-rebellion outcomes. The rebels from Toronto travelled to the United States in groups of two. Although many rebels, including Duncombe, had fled prior to the upcoming battle due to hearing about the failure of Mackenzie in Toronto and general disorganization, there were still some present in Scotland, Ontario and MacNab commenced his attack on Scotland on December 14, causing the remaining rebels to flee after only a few shots were fired. The rebels fled north and the morale of the rebellion was irreparably broken. , A Tory supporter obtained a copy of Mackenzie's declaration and showed it to authorities in Toronto. In 1837, however, Mackenzie was emboldened by the insurgency in Lower Canada and the transfer of all British troops there from Upper Canada.  As they were approaching Montgomery's Tavern Powell mortally shot Anthony Anderson in the neck and escaped back to Toronto to report to Bond Head. , Mackenzie gathered reformers on July 28 and 31, 1837 to discuss their grievances with the government. This became the organizational structure for the Rebellion and most of the rebel organizers were elected Constitutional Convention delegates. In the 1820s, settlers of American origin were also denied political rights, including the choice to swear allegiance to the Crown. incursions in the southwest. In Upper Canada alot of them were actually annexationists wanting to become part of the US (you have to remember at this point in history most Upper Canadians were either first or second generation Americans who came there after Lord Simcoe … The 1837 rebellion in Upper Canada was a less violent, more limited affair than the uprising earlier that year in Lower Canada. The lower Canadian rebels would have their crops and fields burned. Reform movement. They agreed to send sixty men to the Don Bridge to divert government troops. Rolph and Morrison were reluctant about the plan so Mackenzie sought Anthony Van Egmond to help lead the armed forces. , The Upper Canada legislature refused to pass a supply bill in 1836 after Bond Head refused to implement responsible government reforms. Durham was assigned to report on the grievances among the British North American colonists and find a way to appease them. he first sought to pressure the government by organizing a network of political unions and a boycott of imported goods. Causes of the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 Introduction This paper introduces an important pre-Confederation expression of dissent in Upper Canada that can be little known or understood today. Bond Head then offered a negotiation with Rolph, who accepted. Their objective was to engage a smaller force of armed government loyalists and militia. He was forced , The Family Compact dominated the government of Upper Canada and the financial and religious institutions associated with it. It is estimated that there were between 400 and 500 rebels who assembled under Duncombe..  Mackenzie, Duncombe, Rolph and 200 supporters fled to Navy Island in the Niagara River and declared themselves the Republic of Canada on December 13. The Upper Canada Rebellion is sometimes dismissed as a "farmers' revolt," an opportunistic action by misled backwoodsmen.  After meeting with Reformers, Bond Head concluded that they were disloyal to the British Empire and allied himself with the Family Compact. However, by discrediting extremists on both sides of the political spectrum, the rebellion did help moderates rise to power. They controlled the system of patronagethroughout the colony and used political office and influence to further their own business interests. Toronto, Our team will be reviewing your submission and get back to you with any further questions. "The Canadian Rebellions of 1837 and 1838 as a Borderland War: A Retrospective,", Greenwood,F. Scholars for Upper Canada such as Stanely Ryerson a Marxist support the idea that the rebellion was a bourgeoisie democratic revolution. Upper Canada, later known as Canada West then Ontario in 1867, was originally organized in Districts. If Bond refused, they would declare independence from the British Empire.  Another horseman saw the rebel's march into Toronto and notified Fitzgibbon, who tried unsuccessfully to have officials take action. This kept the border in a state of turmoil for nearly a year. The front rank of the rebel force returned fire and then dropped to the ground, to assume a safer firing position. Instead, they decided to wait for Anthony Van Egmond to lead the rebellion into Toronto. It also allowed less radical Upper Canada | Lower Canada | Northwest Rebellion.  Lacking the minimum capital needed to found the bank, the corporate leaders persuaded the government to subscribe for a quarter of its shares. In spite this perversion of history, growing poverty and injustices did induce a movement of resistance which began to take the form of republican “patriot movements” under the leadership of William Lyon Mackenzie in Upper Canada and Louis-Joseph Papineau in Lower Canada- both of whom would come to a head in the Rebellions of 1837-38 (aka: the second missed chance). One fifth of British immigrants to Upper Canada were impoverished and most immigrant farmers lacked the capital to pay for purchased land. His temperament and conviction led him to the point where he not only advocated armed rebellion against the colonial government but led it. , On October 9 1837, a messenger from the Patriotes informed Mackenzie that the rebellion in Lower Canada was going to begin. The news of chaos in Lower Canada reached the people of Upper Canada in October of 1837. Their prisoners 30 ], news of the rebel force returned fire and dropped... 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