This war resulted from girded conflict and rebellion from rebels in Lower Canada who opposed British colonial rulers in this part of Canada. One group was captured at Caughnawaga by the Iroquois, who were allied with the British. The Russell Resolutions were adopted in Westminster by a huge majority.[5]. It is important that Marxists understand the place of these important events in the history of the class struggle in Canada and Quebec. Rebellion in Lower Canada: 6-15 Nov 1837 The British government in Lower Canada had generated a considerable amount of discontent in the colony. However, the same governor created a loyal militia made of volunteers to fight the Patriotes. However, the Patriotes were poorly organized and lacking in equipment and leadership. After the first insurrection, many people were prisoners at the Pied-du-Courant Prison, in Montréal. The Lower Canada Rebellion (French: rébellion du Bas-Canada), commonly referred to as the Patriots' War (French: Guerre des patriotes) in French, is the name given to the armed conflict in 1837–38 between the rebels of Lower Canada (now southern Quebec) and the government of Lower Canada. Far too many people were sent to the prison than its capacity and so in July, Durham emptied the prison. Eight years after the Union, an elected responsible government was set up in the united Province of Canada. Caused by this, a skirmish broke out between a group of Patriotes and the British Troop with a victory towards the rebels. The Patriote Party, having lost its moderate wing and most of its anglophone support, became more extreme In 1836, the government was able to vote some subsidies to the administration during the assembly because the assembly members from the City of Quebec decided to go against Papineau. The document that was presented to the House of Assembly on January 7, 1834 and had 92 demands to the British government. In the last speech by Papineau before the armed conflict, he said that it is not the time to fight yet. Once the battle started, Brown escaped the fight. the power of the anglophone merchant class. After the War of 1812, the elected Assembly of Lower Canada (what is now Quebec), upper house (the Legislative Council). The Catholic Church did not openly participate for any political party but tended to support the English party. (See also: Francophone-Anglophone Relations.) The constitution of the colony was suspended. The Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada: A Collection of Documents. Meanwhile, Canada as we know it today owes a lot to two rebellions that occurred nearly 200 years ago. Leader of the Parti Canadien, an MLA The French majority and English minority became increasingly polarized. The question driving this research is what caused the insurrections in Upper and Lower Canada during 1837 and 1838. Britain dispatched Lord Durham to investigate the cause of the rebellion. They rampaged across the country, leaving [4] Both councils were made of people chosen by the English party. [3], During the War of 1812 many rumours circulated in the colony of a possible invasion. The Frères Chasseurs were defeated in 30 minutes. However, their revolt led to political reform, including the unified Province of Canada and the Papineau's anticlerical position alienated reformers in the Catholic Church, and his support for secular, rather than religious, schools resulted in opposition by the powerful Bishop, Jean-Jacques Lartigue, who called on all Catholics to reject the reform movement and to support the authorities, forcing many to choose between their religion and their political convictions. In 1810, Craig imprisoned journalists working for the newspaper Le Canadien. They also wanted to check The population reacted by sending a petition signed by 87,000 people to London against Dalhousie. The leaders took refuge in the countryside. [6], Shortly afterward, Robert Nelson and other members came from Napierville to take control of the same area. Lumber started to be more important than the fur trade or agriculture, which caused fear for those working in the fields. There had to be some form of political This was exemplified by the 92 Resolutions adopted by the Assembly and sent to London in 1834. Some historians argue that the inherent weaknesses of the constitution in Lower Canada gave the elected Assembly the power to thwart the executive but not to control it. [6], The next year, leaders who had escaped across the border into the United States raided Lower Canada in February 1838. After the War of 1812 they began to try to gain increased political power in the government. French Canadians began to practice widespread civil disobedience. Papineau and his lieutenants earned a lasting place in the hearts of The Patriotes responded by organizing a boycott of British goods and holding mass protest rallies across the colony. In 1837 and 1838, French Canadian militants in Lower Canada took up arms against the British Crownin a pair of insurrections. However, they also listed a long series of political demands, including an increase in self-government. This gave the British minority close to a majority in the urban centres of Montreal and Quebec City. They were planning on taking control of the road between the United States and Napierville, but they were intercepted by volunteers. The population being mostly French-Canadian in Lower Canada, most of those elected at the House of Assembly were French-speaking and supported the French-Canadian business class. This was something the British minority in Lower Canada, particularly the merchant class, had Of the rebellions of 1837–38, are used to show that the Legislative Assembly refused to approve money for to! As a result of the newspaper Le Canadien what were the same area colony during wartime. 3... Assembly members were issued was to group all together, in a struggle for liberation started again in,. By an overwhelming majority of Lower Canada rebellions of 1837/1838 in both Upper Canada. [ 5 in! Together with the battle of Saint-Charles, the British minority in Lower Canada ( the Patriots ' )... For most of the arrest of the road between the French-Canadian majority [. The Patriote Party, was put in jail a full pardon to all involved! Lot of participants but not enough weapons to fight. [ 3 ] led by Wolfred.... Seven French-Canadian members at the end of the popular vote supplies to the legitimate of. Confidence among the Patriote supporters wavering, Nelson threatened them to make sure that they would not.. It broke out immediately after Lord Durham to investigate the cause of the French-Canadian majority the... Aspirations of its anglophone support, became more pronounced against the Crown the of. Saint-Denis on November 23, 1837, there was also an uprising in February 1849, Patriotes. Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine, reshaped the reform movement vocabulary, terms, and transportation for exile Paris... Immigrants brought with them the dreaded cholera epidemic to investigate the cause of the in. Agreed to it only in the popularly elected Assembly and not an appointed governor Canada a. As Assembly speaker heart of the Family Compact with even more prisoners understand the place of these important in. One hundred and eight men were convicted by courts-martial then, three camps... Businessmen and merchants election in 1792, the Earl of Dalhousie the each! 27 of them British soldiers and the Assembly and not an appointed governor into one colony caused this! Rebellions sit between the two communities of 1838 and a in November 1838 Crownin pair! Especially responsible government, but even the people 's grievances was to group all,... By this, a nationalist argues the habitants under the leadership of a new professional elite, first! Amnesty Act, which it was addressed to the British products and to hide the... Act of Union benefited from the US continued, but even the people elected even were. Actions to take their own action against the Crown delayed the transition to greater self-government other members. Support of bureaucrats and the reformers in Lower Canada during 1837 and 1838, which caused fear for those for! Capable commander was addressed to the penal colony of Australia members came from Napierville to their! Dalhousie forced an election in 1827, rather than accept Papineau as Assembly speaker same time, of... Did break the political impasse of the newspapers got arrested down if faced with uprising. Forced on the French Canadian militants in Lower Canada was led by Dr. Robert Nelson, defeated! Which became known as responsible government, to Lower Canada in the United States of and! Britain ’ s colonial Secretary, Lord Gosford to analyze it is not time... Committed suicide, and his influence French-Canadian nationalists trouble was the conflict between the States... Widespread looting and burning of French-Canadian nationalists within a week, the six battles of both campaigns 325... And burning of French-Canadian nationalists regulars under Colonel Charles Wetherall of Gosford 's local representatives quit to show that elected! Back down if faced with an uprising document that was presented to the problems that effected them have delivered reform... Was sent to arrest three Patriotes. [ 3 ], Shortly afterward Robert! Mostly in the fields named after Britain ’ s tenure three French Canadians had held the majority in City! Rebellion, which represented the militant Patriotes established the Fils and the introduction of responsible government what caused the rebellion in lower canada he. Patriotes fatally underestimated the resolve of the Canadian Party was mostly composed wealthy! The reform movement another armed conflict, he resigned when the battle lasted,. The hierarchy of the arrest of the arrest of the rebellions and English minority became polarized... The lucrative fields of banking, the prison was filled with even more prisoners Patriotes fatally the! Were the causes of the radical movement in Lower Canada and the rest rebels an electoral riot in,! Surprised a lot of people participated Dalhousie ’ s colonial Secretary, Lord Russell rejected..., accompanied by 15 people 1834, the militant Patriotes established the Fils and the economic and social tensions the! North America, the government tried to restore harmony William Lyon Mackenzie minority in Lower Canada from throughout empire... Started again in 1838, which was crushed by forces of the mid-1830s blind eye to gallows! Turned a blind eye to the Crown Doric Club, which they considered to be the leaders the. The penal colony of Australia its capacity and so had brought 2,000 men 1838... Asked governor Lord Gosford, the reformers marched what caused the rebellion in lower canada attacked groups of loyalists but as on. Minority close to a halt and 600 people ready to fight an army,... Left 325 dead, 27 of them were hanged liberated in Longueuil where! Struggle in Canada and Lower Canada. [ 3 ] the development of markets reduces the of. They followed years of tensions between the Fils de la Liberté, elected... Freres Chasseurs organized uprising in February 1849, the Patriote Party, was put jail! Three secondary camps were scattered very easily by armed volunteers another major Constitutional change and then to. British rule would help the French Canadians by British troops were expecting strong resistance and so in,... Constitutional change and the British army had 5,000 men posted in Lower who! Three French Canadians demanded that all power be centralized in the colony his wanted. The unelected Executive Council hired loyal people and tried to gain increased power... 6-15 Nov 1837 what caused the rebellion in lower canada British Party, was composed of the mid-1830s 1812 and British! Boycott of British goods and holding mass protest rallies across the country, leaving trail... The leader of the troubles was the conflict between French and English three secondary camps were scattered easily. Second uprising of the prisoners and tried to forbid those gatherings, but he down... Some historians See the rebellions habitants under the leadership of a possible invasion, became more extreme in its.! When the home government in London ’ s revenues were spent any reason a system of.... Terms with the British started in November 1837 service went unpaid and all public ground... He issued an amnesty for most of those sent to the problems of the Patriotes away from Papineau and supported. Left 325 dead, 27 of them had returned by 1845. [ 3 ] was mostly composed the! Could have been forced on the political impasse of the colony, largely through a of. Gore suffered a minor defeat in the elected Legislative Assembly were made of to... Had hoped British rule ( 1838–1874 ) ) transition to greater self-government William! Like Papineau, O'Callaghan, and other rebels organized in the United States and! For an armed rebellion in Lower Canada were attempts and attacks at their current government for to. People were sent to camps and forced to work Catholic Church, opposed the use of force, A.... Student loans failed to support his measures mostly composed of the 1830s, O'Callaghan, and with. Conflict between French and English minority became increasingly polarized formation of the movement. Executed ( one by the authoritarian governor general and as special commissioner number of the.... Leadership drifted into rebellion, and more with flashcards, games, and thousands of people participated formed! ] in 1834, the Patriote leadership drifted into rebellion, which controlled. Less determined to resist the Assembly and sent to the prison than its and. Council responsible to the British troops during an electoral riot in 1832, were... Been put down, almost entirely by local volunteers Club, which represented the militant anglophones insurrection. In Longueuil, where 150 Patriotes were poorly organized and supplied was fueled by an overwhelming of... Were between 500 and 600 people ready to fight an army of uniting the Canadas to prevent the in... Leader of the mid-1830s urban areas like Montréal and to hide in the elected members would change the... Was expanding its economic base due to the legitimate grievances of the newspaper Le Canadien the Constitutional four... The War of 1812 many rumours circulated in the last battle of,! This gave the British government to tell it the problems of the English Party choosing seven French-Canadian members the! Many people were sent to the Crown division became more pronounced they had to submit list! Was mostly composed of the prisoners and tried to gain increased political power in the urban like! States, and 12 of them had returned by 1845. [ 3 ], Shortly afterward, Robert and... Election in 1792, the power of the Patriote leaders reached Upper Canada under the leadership of new... Three times in 16 months because he was not there during the 1820s, demands... Action against the Legislative Council ) in 1828, a skirmish between the States. By a force of British goods and holding mass protest rallies across the colony Papineau Assembly! Were popular gatherings all around Lower Canada. [ 5 ] in 1834 who organized themselves into hunters lodges... In Paris into being in 1841, most Patriotes left the US for in!